November 29, 2022

Israel's November 2022 General Elections
Former Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and his wife Sara Netanyahu greet supporters at an election night event for the Likud party, November 1, 2022 in Jerusalem, Israel.

Amir Levy/Getty


Tel Aviv, Israel — Former Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu appeared headed toward a comeback election victory on Wednesday. With 80% of the ballots from national elections counted, voters appeared to have given the political veteran — and his far-right allies — a stable majority in the country’s parliament.
 
Votes were still being counted and results were not final. But if preliminary indications were correct, Israel was poised to seat its most right-wing government, bolstered by a strong showing from the ultranationalist Religious Zionism political alliance, whose members use inflammatory anti-Arab and anti-LGBTQ rhetoric.
 
The initial results pointed to a continued rightward shift in the Israeli electorate, further dimming hopes for peace with the Palestinians and setting the stage for possible conflict with the Biden administration and Israel’s supporters in the United States.
 
The early results also showed that Netanyahu had overcome his detractors, who claimed he was not fit to rule while on trial for corruption and have refused to sit with him in government. Netanyahu’s far-right partners have promised to help him evade a conviction.

A comeback, despite legal woes

“We are on the verge of a very big victory,” Netanyahu, 73, told supporters at a gathering in Jerusalem early Wednesday. “I will establish a nationalist government that will see to all Israeli citizens without any exceptions.”
 
Elections officials worked through the night tallying votes and by Wednesday morning, nearly 80% of the ballots had been counted. The vote, like past elections, was tight but initial indications showed Netanyahu was headed back to the premiership with a firm majority in Israel’s 120-seat parliament.


Former Israeli leader Benjamin Netanyahu hopes to unseat Prime Minister Yair Lapid in election

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With Netanyahu and his allies projected to win more than the 61-seat majority needed to form a government, the country’s protracted political crisis may be headed toward a conclusion, but the country remains as divided as ever.

Tuesday’s election was Israel’s fifth in less than four years, with all of them focused largely on Netanyahu’s fitness to govern. On trial for a slew of corruption charges, Netanyahu, who has always denied wrongdoing, is seen by supporters as the victim of a witch hunt and vilified by opponents as a crook and threat to democracy.

Israel’s far-right on the rise

The night’s strongest showing was by an alliance of three far-right parties known as Religious Zionism. Itamar Ben-Gvir, leader of the Otzma Yehudit (Jewish Power) party, was likely the most influential vote-getter within that alliance. Along with his partners, Ben-Gvir and Religious Zionism emerged as the third-largest party after the voting.

General election in Israel
Israeli far-right lawmaker and head of the Jewish Power party Itamar Ben-Gvir gives a statement following the exit polls of the 2022 Israeli general election, November 2, 2022, in Jerusalem.

Ilia Yefimovich/picture alliance/Getty


At an all-male campaign gathering in Jerusalem, religious men wearing Jewish skullcaps and waving Israeli flags danced in celebration. At the celebration, Ben-Gvir’s supporters chanted “Death to terrorists.”

Ben-Gvir joined forces with the two other right-wing parties, the Religious Zionist Party and Noam, in 2021. He had threatened to break from the alliance ahead of this week’s election but rejoined to ensure the parties would collectively get enough votes to cross the threshold required to hold seats in the parliament. Netanyahu helped orchestrate that partnership, knowing he would need both parties to join any coalition he hopes to form.
 
Ben-Gvir is a disciple of the racist U.S.-born rabbi Meir Kahane, who was banned from parliament and whose Kach party was branded a terrorist group by the United States before he was assassinated in New York in 1990. Kahane’s agenda called for banning intermarriage between Arabs and Jews, stripping Arabs of Israeli citizenship and expelling large numbers of Palestinians.
 
But while Kahane was seen as a pariah, Ben-Gvir is one of Israel’s most popular politicians, thanks to his frequent media appearances, cheerful demeanor, knack for deflecting criticism and calls for a harder line against Palestinians at a time of heavy fighting in the occupied West Bank. Young ultra-Orthodox men are among his strongest supporters.

Israeli police intervene in Palestinians reacted to extreme right-wing deputy Ben-Gvir
Right-wing extremist politician Itamar Ben-Gvir holds an Israeli flag as Palestinians gather around him to prevent his press conference at Damascus Gate in Jerusalem, June 10, 2021.

Eyad Tawil/Anadolu Agency/Getty


Ben-Gvir lives in the hard-line West Bank settlement of Kiryat Arba and is a strong proponent of settlement construction. He has described Arab colleagues in parliament as “terrorists,” called for deporting those who are “disloyal” and recently brandished a handgun in a tense Palestinian neighborhood of Jerusalem as he called on police to shoot Palestinian stone-throwers.
 
“We want to make a total separation between those who are loyal to the state of Israel — and we don’t have any problem with them – and those who undermine our dear country,” he said.
 
Muhammad Shtayyeh, the Palestinian prime minister, said the rise of Israel’s far right was “a natural result of the growing manifestations of extremism and racism in Israeli society.” 

Far-right plans and intentions

If the Netanyahu alliance ends up controlling a majority, Ben-Gvir and his alliance partner Bezalel Smotrich, of the Religious Zionist party, are sure to drive a hard bargain. Ben-Gvir has said he will demand the cabinet post overseeing Israel’s police force.

ISRAEL-VOTE-CAMPAIGN
Itamar Ben-Gvir (left), Israeli far-right lawmaker and leader of the Otzma Yehudit (Jewish power) party, and Bezalel Smotrich, Israeli far-right lawmaker and leader of the Religious Zionist Party, attend a rally in the southern Israeli city of Sderot, October 26, 2022.

GIL COHEN-MAGEN/AFP/Getty


The pair have also said they will seek legal reforms aimed at weakening the independence of the judiciary and giving parliament power to override court decisions they don’t like. That could clear the way for the dismissal of criminal charges against Netanyahu. Smotrich and other members of the party have also made repeated anti-LGBTQ comments.
 
Such positions could put a future Netanyahu government on a collision course with the Biden administration, which supports a two-state solution with the Palestinians. It could also alienate Israeli allies in the U.S., particularly the predominantly liberal Jewish American community.

In Israel, voters vote for parties, not individual politicians. No party has ever won a majority on its own, and coalition-building is necessary to govern.

Political wrangling yet to come

Even if Netanyahu and his allies emerge victorious, it could still take weeks of negotiations for a coalition government to be formed.
 
Netanyahu was Israel’s longest-serving prime minister, governing for 12 consecutive years — and 15 years altogether — before he was ousted last year by a diverse coalition led by the centrist Yair Lapid, the current caretaker prime minister.

General election in Israel
Israeli Prime Minister Yair Lapid gives a statement following the exit polls of the 2022 Israeli general election, November 2, 2022, in Tel Aviv, Israel.

Tomer Neuberg/picture alliance/Getty


But the coalition that Lapid cobbled together, which included the first Arab party ever to join a government, was decimated by infighting and collapsed after just one year in power. Those parties were poised to capture about 50 seats, according to initial results.
 
Lapid, addressing supporters early Wednesday, insisted that the race was not decided.
 
“Until the last envelope is counted, nothing is over and nothing is final,” he said.

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